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A Complete Guide to DIP( Dual In-Line Package)

What is a Dual In-Line Package?

The dual-in-line package is a complete integrated circuit (IC) package. It mainly consists of ceramic or plastic and features a rectangular housing and a parallel row of electrical connections.
The pins are typically placed 0.1 inches apart in the dual in-line package, designed for through-hole mounting on a circuit board. DIPs offer a durable solution for a wide range of electronic components; thus, they have become the most popular choice of engineers and designers in modern electronics today.
Double-row integrated circuits (DIP) chips feature two rows of pins and can be soldered directly onto a printed circuit board or inserted into a DIP socket of a chip carrier.
The dual in-line package offers various benefits, making it ideal for multiple applications. It is cost-effective, easy to assemble, and highly reliable. Besides, DIP supports multiple voltage and current ratings and can operate within a wide range of temperatures, making it suitable for various applications and environments.
Pros
  • DIPs are easy to handle and insert into circuit boards.
  • They offer excellent reliability due to their encapsulated design.
Cons
  • Compared to modern surface mount packages, DIP takes up more space.
  • They have higher parasitic capacitance and inductance. This potentially affects signal integrity at higher frequencies.
  • They have limitations on the number of pins they accommodate.
  • The through-hole mounting process is slower and more labor-intensive than surface-mount technology.

Example of Dual In-Line Package

One of the most common examples of a dual in-line package is the 555 timer IC. It is versatile and widely used. It can be found in large electronics products, ranging from simple timers to complex pulse generators. Its DIP format makes it easy to handle, solder, and insert into breadboards for prototyping. Because of this, it’s a favorite among hobbyists and professionals alike.

Birth of DIP: From Concept to Reality

In the past, circuits used to be bulky and complicated, and components were individually wired. Thus, there was always a need for a better way of packaging and mounting Integrated Circuits, ICs, onto electronic devices. In the early 1960s, although there were some packaging methods like flat packs and TO-style metal cans, they were difficult to manufacture, install, and remove from circuit boards.
In 1964, Don Forbes at Fairchild Semiconductor proposed a new form of packaging. He proposed another package design with two rows of pins, which were supposed to simplify the insertion, removal, and soldering of ICs onto circuit boards.
Forbes’ concept was further developed by engineers to come up with a DIP with optimum pin spacing and count, package dimensions, and material selection.
The first DIP had a rectangular body with two rows of pins along the long sides. Later on, ongoing improvements led to various package sizes and different pin configurations.
With the introduction of DIP in the 1960s, a breakthrough occurred in integrated circuit packaging. DIP eliminated the requirement of wiring among multiple components by placing multiple electronic components within a single package with two parallel rows of pins.

Anatomy of DIP: What’s inside it?

The packaged form holds the DIP, which is a rectangular body, ordinarily plastic or ceramic. It has two parallel rows of metal pins along the longer side. The total number of pins in various DIPs ranges from 4 to 64.
The integrated circuit (IC) chip is the most common central component of a DIP. This IC chip is a small silicon wafer, normally having transistors, resistors, and other minute electronic components. This IC chip is mounted on a lead frame. The frame not only provides physical support but also facilitates electrical connections. Gold or aluminum and bond wires connect the chip’s contact pads to the lead frame’s inner extensions.
The wires and chips are protected inside a body, usually made of black epoxy plastic or ceramic. This is the main body of DIP. As we mentioned earlier, multiple pins extend from the body and run alongside the longer length of the body. These pins are typically made of copper alloy and plated with tin, gold, or other metals. They facilitate the connection of various other components to the circuit board.

Types of DIP Package

DIP packages are classified as below:

Classification by Material Type

PDIP Components

PDIP stands for Plastic Dual In-Line package. It is one of the most common types of DIP packaging in modern electronics. PDIP is made from plastic, which also insulates electricity. The use of plastic materials makes the packaging lightweight and cost-effective, making it reliable for use in PCBs today.

SPDIP Components

It refers to the Shrink Plastic Dual Inline Package, an upgraded version of the regular DIP. The major difference is that SPDIPs are small. Thus, more SPDIPs can be fitted on the circuit board, helping to save space while maintaining the same performance and functionality as the regular DIP.

SDIP Components

SDIP stands for Shrink Dual Inline Package. It’s similar to SPDIP, but even smaller. It also has two rows of pins along the longer sides. The compact size of SDIPs allows for more components to fit on a circuit board, which makes electronics smaller and more efficient.

CerDIP Components

CerDIP stands for Ceramic Dual Inline Package. Unlike plastic DIPs, CerDIPs are made from ceramic. This material makes them very reliable and good at handling heat. They’re perfect for important applications where reliability and performance are crucial, like aerospace, military, and industrial uses. It is better than plastic and can handle moisture, chemicals, and changes in temperature too.

Metal DIP Components

Metal DIP isn’t a standard term in electronics, but it likely refers to DIP packages that use metal parts. Traditional DIP packages have a plastic or ceramic body with metal pins for electrical connections.
Some variations include:
  • Metal-Clad DIP: These might have a metal heat sink on top to help with heat dissipation.
  • Shielded DIP: These include a metal cover to protect against electromagnetic interference (EMI), which can affect how the circuit works.

Metal DIP Components

Metal DIP isn’t a standard term in electronics, but it likely refers to DIP packages that use metal parts. Traditional DIP packages have a plastic or ceramic body with metal pins for electrical connections.
Some variations include:
  • Metal-Clad DIP: These might have a metal heat sink on top to help with heat dissipation.
  • Shielded DIP: These include a metal cover to protect against electromagnetic interference (EMI), which can affect how the circuit works.

Classification by Pin Configuration

Based on the number of pins, DIPs can be 14-pin DIP, 16-pin DIP, and 40-pin DIP. Lesser pin DIPs are used for small-scale integration circuits like logic gates and simple microcontrollers. Higher pins DIP have their applications on more complex ICs and microprocessors.

Application of DIP

DIPs have been widely used in various electronic applications since their introduction. While they have been largely replaced by surface-mount technologies in many modern devices, they still find use in specific areas. Some of the applications of DIP include:
  • Educational and hobby electronics: This application lies in educational kits and hobbyist projects due to the improved handling and soldering features.
  • Prototyping: DIPs are easy to use and engineer, so they are frequently used by engineers in the initial attempts at circuit design and prototyping.
  • Industrial control systems: Many industrial controllers and PLCs continue to use DIPs due to their dependability and ease of replacement.
  • Vintage electronics: Substitute DIPs are critical in the service and maintenance of vintage or older electronic devices.
  • Specialty applications: DIPs are used for specialized components in a few niche markets, such as special audio equipment or scientific instruments.
  • Through-hole PCBs: DIPs retain relevance in systems where through-hole mounting is preferred for its inherent mechanical strength.
  • Low-volume production: DIPs can be more cost-effective than setting up surface-mount assembly for products with small production runs.

DIP vs. Other Packaging Types

DIP competes with several other packaging types in modern electronics. Features of surface mount packages Packball grid array packages. The fundamental difference between these packages and DIP is their mounting and assembly methods. DIPs use through-hole technology. In this technique, leads extend from the package and are inserted through holes in the PCB, then soldered on the opposite side. In contrast, Surface-Mount Packages have flat contacts for direct mounting on the PCB surface. On the other hand, Ball Grid Arrays utilize a grid of solder balls on the underside of the package instead of leads or pins.
The difference between Dual In-line Packaging, Surface-Mount Packaging, and Ball Grid Array Packaging are tabulated below:
S.N.
Feature
Dual In-Line Packaging
Surface-Mount Packaging
Ball Grid Array Packaging
1.
Mounting Style
Through-hole
Surface-Mounted
Solder Balls are packed under
2.
Assembly Method
Manual
Automated
Automated
3.
Board Space
Larger Footprint
Smaller Footprint
Compact
4.
Pin Density
Lower
Higher
Higher
5.
Electrical Performance
Moderate
Good
Excellent
6.
High-Frequency Operation
Limited
Suitable
Excellent
7.
Thermal Performance
Moderate
Good
Excellent
8.
Durability
High
Moderate
High
9.
Typical Applications
Consumer electronics, prototyping
Consumer electronics, industrial
High-performance computing, aerospace

DIP Pin Configurations

DIPs are fabricated according to JEDEC standards for various uses. Normally, the pitch of the pins is 0.1 inches or 2.54 mm. The spacing between the centerlines of the two rows of pins is mostly 0.3 inches (7.62 mm) or 0.6 inches (15.24 mm). Other spacings include 0.4 and 0.9 inches. Some have a reduced pitch of 0.07 inches or 1.778 mm with spacings between rows of 0.3, 0.6, or 0.75 inches.
In the old Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, DIP packages were made with a pitch of 2.5 millimeters to conform to the metric system, which was incompatible with the 2.54 mm used elsewhere.
All DIP packages have an even number of pins. For 0.6-inch row spacing, typical counts are 24, 28, 32, and 40; those with 36, 48, or 52 pins are less common. The maximum is 64 pins, as can be found in some microprocessors.
This notch, or dot, must be face upwards during installation, and a pin 1 is at the upper left corner. The pins are numbered counterclockwise. For example, in a DIP-14 package with the notch facing up, the left side pins are 1 to 7 from top to bottom, and the right side pins are 8 to 14 from bottom to top.

Future of DIP

As advanced methods of packaging are imprinted into the world of electronics, DIP is starting to get out of mainstream electronics. Surface-mount technology supplants traditional DIP in new designs. That said, legacy systems and educational settings will keep DIPs alive for their simplicity and ease of use. Hobbyist electronics also keep DIPs alive due to their breadboard compatibility and straightforward soldering.
While the manufacturing of DIP components may slow down, which could result in escalation, the DIP format won’t disappear entirely. Rather, it’s evolving. Makers often produce Surface-Mount versions of traditional DIPs, which creates some bridge between old and new technologies.
Therefore, it can be said that DIPs will become increasingly specialized in specific market needs rather than enormous applications.

Conclusions

The dual-in-line package is the major cornerstone of integrated circuit packaging because it is simple, reliable, and easy to use. Despite its labor-intensive nature, it can lead to higher failure rates due to work fatigue, so this method still remains crucial. At present, about 70% of the market has adopted the SMB. However, automating the insertion mainly for the large-scale components is challenging. Thus, DIP processing technology continues to evolve with significant advancements. Visit FC PCBA if you want to learn about those advances in DIP, and follow us for more information on PCBA.

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