Guide

Understanding the BGA Assembly Every Details

With the rapid development of science and technology, the packaging requirements for integrated circuits are now more stringent. Nowadays, to meet development, the ball grid array package also appeared.BGA is a novel technology in SMT assembly. It is a popular way to assemble chips on PCB boards and has won wide attention in the PCB industry
 
As China’s most trustworthy supplier, FC’s BGA production services are specifically tailored to today’s electronics, ensuring that our customers’ requirements for BGA integration in their PCB designs are met with precision and quality.

What is Ball Grid Array?

Before BGA, techniques such as dual in-line packages (DIP) and flat packages were used in the PCB assembly. The research identified the issues in the pin grid array integrated circuits that the larger number of pins in less space compromises the reliability and performance of complex applications. To solve these problems, BGA was developed.

BGA is a technique to mount complex chips or integrated circuits such as microcontrollers or microprocessors on PCB Boards. BGA introduced a minimal solder ball array on the bottom of chips. In BGA, these chips have some solder balls on the bottom. The chips are connected to the PCB by these solder balls, which makes the connection more reliable and saves the space of the PCB. Using BGA, a larger number of pins can be designed in a chip in the shape of solder balls in less space, and more than that, the distance between the chip and PCB is lesser.

Therefore, BGA packaging technology is dominant in the electronics manufacturing industry nowadays.

Types of BGA Packages

Depending on the performance requirements and the type of application, FC has evolved to produce the following ball grid array package types:

Plastic BGA (PBJA)

Plastic Ball Grid Array(PBJA) is a cost-effective package in various applications. Its solder balls are a combination of tin and eutectic lead. The development of this BGA package ensures the capability to bear the temperature up to 150 degrees Celsius. These types of BGA have less weight and good electrical and thermal performance. Commonly, double-sided PCBs use this type of BGA package.

Ceramic BGA (CBGA)

The Ceramic Ball Grid Array (CBGA)uses a substrate of ceramic material. This package has excellent thermal properties and heat resistance. It comes with a rectangular and square shape and a compact package. It dominates in high-performance applications such as telecommunication, aerospace, and automotive.

Flip Chip BGA (FCBGA)

Flip Chip BGA (FCBGA) has a hard multilayer substrate. And it allows for higher speeds and better electrical performance.

Tape BGA (TBGA)

The tape Ball Grid Array(TBGA) uses a substrate of flexible tape materials. High-speed and thin products that require a strong core can choose this package.

Enhanced Ball Grid Array(EBGA)

Enhanced Ball Grid Array(EBGA) is a thermally EBGA integrated circuit package substrate manufacturing method. With a thermally conductive copper column structure, heat dissipation capacity is greatly improved, and from a finer line, the reliability of the package is good.

Metal Ball Grid Array(MBGA)

Metal Ball Grid Array(MBGA) uses metal ceramic as a substrate. The chip faces down, and the circuit consists of sputtered ceramic.

Micro BGA

The substrate of The Micro BGA consists of packaging tape and the chip is always facing down. Its elastomer between the tape and the chip helps eliminate thermal expansion stresses. In addition, this type is at the heart of high-storage products with low pin counts.

The BGA Assembly Process at FC

We already know that the BGA package has the advantages of high density, high reliability, and good electrical performance, which is widely used in electronic products. Next, we will introduce the BGA package process at FC in detail.

Step1: Initial Design and Layout

The design of a BGA package is a task of precision. There is no chance of any mild error. Even a small deviation can fail in the entire Process. To design successfully, one should plan each step initially, from component placement to the layout of pathways.

Step2: Solder Paste Application

One of the most challenging parts of the BGA assembly process is to solder paste. Usually use lead-free solder paste for coating. Spread the lead-free solder paste evenly on the substrate to ensure that the thickness of the coating layer is uniform and not too thick. Use a scraper or other tools to scrape the lead-free solder tone to ensure the flatness of the coating layer. There are multiple techniques to gain consistency in the entire process. Viscosity control and stencil calibration must be performed to obtain better results.

Step3: Ball Array Arrangement

Ball Array Arrangement is the third step of BGA packaging, mainly arranging the solder balls at specific positions on the substrate.
 
  • Solder Ball Selection
The selection of solder balls is based on factors such as the number and size of chip pins. Solder balls are generally made of lead-free alloys with good soldering performance and reliability.
 
  • Soldier Ball Arrangement
The solder ball arrangement is to paste the solder ball in a specific position on the substrate, corresponding to the chip pins. Place the solder balls in the specific positions to maintain alignment accuracy. Use a hot air gun or hot plate to heat the melted solder balls and bond them with the lead-free solder paste on the substrate.

Step4:Solder Ball Connection

Solder ball connection is the core step of BGA packaging, mainly connecting the chip to the solder balls on the substrate. It is placing the chip on the substrate to maintain alignment accuracy. The solder balls are heated using soldering equipment to melt them. The soldering temperature and time are controlled to ensure the quality of the connection between the solder balls and the chip pins.

Step5:Cleaning

Cleaning is to remove the solder slag and dirt produced during the soldering process to ensure product reliability. Specific steps are as follows, the packaged chip into the cleaning solution for ultrasonic cleaning. -Remove the chip and rinse it with deionized water to remove the residue of the cleaning solution.

Step6:Inspection and Testing

After the process of BGA assembly, inspecting and testing the assembled PCB is also an important method. A single wrong soldering on the PCB board can result in a short circuit in the control board when powered. Therefore, some testing and inspection techniques are required to maintain the quality of the assembly. The testing method checks each detail of the PCB to verify the assembled PCB.

Advantages of BGA Assembly

Performance Enhancement

BGA assembly provides an enhancement in electrical performance by reducing the distance between the PCB and the chip. It makes efficient and fast signal communication.

Space Efficiency

The compact design of BGA packages saves valuable space on the PCB, it allows for numerous components in less area of the PCB.

Enhanced Reliability

The solder ball connections in BGA assemblies provide strong and reliable physical connections. It ensures reliability and performance.

Heat Dissipation

Various types of BGA packages offer excellent thermal performance. In complex devices, BGA technology dominates in reducing the risk of overheating.

Challenges in BGA Assembly

Soldering Issues

BGA package integrated circuits is a compact package composed of small soldering balls, which is a challenge to program for soldering with precision and a small mistake can ruin the PCB board.

Inspection Difficulties

Inspecting the assembly process is a useful procedure to check the quality of the assembly. However, Inspection requires advanced techniques and attention to ensure that every connection is perfectly established and non-errors.

Rework and Repair Challenges

When a PCB becomes faulty and comes for repair, the BGA ICs are very difficult to resell, and a new IC on the same pad with the same accuracy without damaging any traces. It’s a complex task to perform manually or automated. It involves various techniques to repair the PCB.

Comparison with Other Packaging Technologies

BGA vs. QFP

BGA and QFP differ mainly in design and application. BGA uses solder balls, which provide better performance and reliability, while QFP relies on fine pins that can be more delicate and harder to handle.

BGA vs. CSP

When comparing BGA to CSP, BGA often wins in its performance, while CSP is slightly better in space efficiency due to its smaller size. Both are great, but the choice depends on specific needs.

BGA vs. LGA

BGA provides a strong solder connection, while LGA uses flat contacts. This makes BGAs easier to replace or upgrade components. Each has its benefits, with BGA being more robust and LGA being more flexible.

Applications of BGA Technology

Consumer Electronics

BGA technology is common in smartphones, smartwatches, laptops, and many other devices. It helps improve their performance and reliability.
In vehicles, especially electric vehicles, where High-frequency servo drives, and BMS systems are used BGA is an important aspect of the automotive industry. It supports advanced features and safety systems.

Telecommunications Industry

BGA is essential in networking equipment. It ensures efficient data transmission and receiving and strong connectivity.

Medical Devices

Nowadays, the medical industry has developed many portable healthcare devices that are small but require greater accuracy. They also use BGA technology. It provides precision and durability in important healthcare tools
Ball Grid array is an advanced technology designed to improve performance, reliability, and thermal quality. It is an excellent technique to save space on PCB. BGA is useful for high-speed, complex devices, It is an innovative achievement in consumer electronics, automotive, telecommunications, and healthcare industries. Despite challenges like precise soldering and detailed inspections, various advantages include enhanced electrical performance, strong connections, reliability, and better heat management. As technology advances, BGA will continue to play a crucial role in developing more advanced and reliable electronic devices.
 

FAQs

BGA stands for Ball Grid Array is a technology used to mount integrated circuits on PCB boards.
 
BGA is preferred for its enhanced performance, reliability, and space efficiency, making it ideal for high-speed and complex electronic devices.
BGA components are difficult to reuse due to the complexity of resoldering and replacing them without damaging the PCB.
Common issues include soldering defects, inspection challenges, and difficulties in reworking or repairing BGA components.
BGA assembly is inspected using various techniques such as automated optical inspections and electrical testing to ensure quality and reliability.

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